Saturday, December 06, 2008

The Anti Marijuana Resource

Update: 150+ Scientific Studies Showing the Dangers of Marijuana

* Please see the updated page for the most current scientific research.

Marijuana - The Real Facts (1 hr)

Marijuana is a very dangerous drug that has been propagandized as "safe" by weak minded idiots. The reality is marijuana is an addictive drug that can cause brain damage, cancer, gum disease, heart disease, infertility, lung disease, obesity, pregnancy failure, viral infections and doubles the risk of car accidents. The United States has the highest level of marijuana use due to an increased ignorant acceptance of it as "safe" by popular culture through movies, music, television and video games.

Animals Exposed To Marijuana's Active Component Will Self-Administer The Drug (NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse)
Marijuana Withdrawal As Bad As Withdrawal From Cigarettes (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Marijuana Withdrawal Reported By Teens Seeking Treatment (University of Vermont)
Smoking, Drinking, Drugs: The Younger They Start, The Harder It Is To Quit (Center For The Advancement Of Health)

Gateway Drug:
Cannabis linked to use of amphetamines (Addiction Journal)
Brain Studies Tie Marijuana to Other Drugs (Science)
Early cannabis abuse 'leads to heroin addiction' (Mount Sinai School of Medicine)
Early marijuana use increases risk of drug and alcohol problems later in life (Washington University School of Medicine)
Illicit Drug Use Starts With Cannabis (University of Otago, New Zealand)
Marijuana use linked to hallucinogen use (Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health)
National Study Shows "Gateway" Drugs Lead to Cocaine Use (Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse)

Brain Damage:
Cannabis and adolescence: A dangerous cocktail (McGill University Health Centre)
Cannabis 'can cause psychosis in healthy people' (Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London)
Cannabis Could Increase Risks Of Psychotic Illness By 40 Percent (Cardiff University, UK)
Cannabis Increases Risk Of Psychosis (British Medical Journal)
Cannabis increases risk of depression and schizophrenia (British Medical Journal)
Cannabis ingredient causes toxic psychosis (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
Cannabis link to psychosis (University of New South Wales, Australia)
Cannabis smokers 'are taking huge risk of psychotic illness' (Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London)
Cannabis Triggers Transient Schizophrenia-like Symptoms (Yale School of Medicine)
Cannabis use 'dulls the brain' (Journal of the American Medical Association)
Cannabis use precedes the onset of psychotic symptoms in young people (British Medical Journal)
Concerns over mental health risk of smoking cannabis (British Journal of Psychiatry)
Daily Consumption Of Cannabis Predisposes To Appearance Of Psychosis And Schizophrenia (University of Granada)
Daily Pot Smoking May Hasten Onset of Psychosis (Emory University)
Early Cannabis Use Increases Risk of Schizophrenia (University of Otago, New Zealand)
Early cannabis users three times more likely to have psychotic symptoms (University of Queensland, Australia)
Frequent Marijuana Use May Affect Brain Function (NeuroReport Journal)
Heavy Cannabis Use May Lead to Psychotic Symptoms (University of Otago, New Zealand)
Heavy Marijuana use has a detrimental impact on intelligence (Canadian Medical Association Journal)
Heavy Marijuana Use May Damage Developing Brain In Teens, Young Adults (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia)
How Marijuana Causes Memory Deficits (Nature Neuroscience)
How Smoking Marijuana Damages The Fetal Brain (Science)
Human Study Shows Greater Cognitive Deficits in Marijuana Users Who Start Young (Society for Neuroscience)
Lab study shows THC exposure as adolescents linked to negative effects of THC as adults (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology)
Long-term cannabis use causes brain injury (Archives of General Psychiatry Journal)
Marijuana And Alcohol Taken Together Induced Widespread Nerve Cell Death In Brains Of Young Rats (Annals of Neurology Journal)
Marijuana Damages Brain (King's College London)
Marijuana Is Linked to Brain Damage (The Lancet Medical Journal)
Marijuana Use Affects Blood Flow In Brain Even After Abstinence (Neurology Journal)
Marijuana use in pregnancy damages kids' learning (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Marijuana Use Takes Toll On Adolescent Brain Function (University of Cincinnati)
Memory, speed of thinking get worse over time with marijuana use (American Academy of Neurology)
Molecular Imaging Shows Chronic Marijuana Smoking Affects Brain Chemistry (Society of Nuclear Medicine)
More Evidence Of Cannabis-induced Psychosis (BMC Psychiatry Journal)
New research reveals how cannabis alters brain function (Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London)
Scans reveal brain damage from cannabis is like schizophrenia (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)
Schizophrenia Linked To Dysfunction In Molecular Brain Pathway Activated By Marijuana (Archives of General Psychiatry Journal)
Skunk 'poses greatest risk of psychosis' (Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London)
Skunk smokers 18 times more likely to be psychotic (Royal College of Psychiatrists)
Starting marijuana use during teens may result in cognitive impairment later in life (NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse)
Teen Drug Use Associated With Psychiatric Disorders Later In Life (NIH National Institute On Drug Abuse)
Teen Marijuana Use Worsens Depression, Leads To More Serious Mental Illness (Office of National Drug Control Policy)

Cannabis alters human DNA (University of Leicester, UK)
How Cannabis Suppresses Immune Functions: Cannabis Compounds Found to Trigger Unique Immune Cells Which Promote Cancer Growth (European Journal of Immunology)
Marijuana ingredient promotes tumor growth, impairs anti-tumor defenses (NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse)
Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Risk of Testicular Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)
Marijuana Use Associated with HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancer (Journal of the National Cancer Institute)
Smoking Marijuana May Increase Risk Of Head And Neck Cancers (Cancer Epidemiology Biomarker and Prevention Journal)
Tobacco is 'less risky than dope' (Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center)

Gum Disease:
Heavy Marijuana Use Linked To Gum Disease (Journal of the American Medical Association)

Heart Disease:
Adolescent binging on marijuana linked to stroke (Saint Louis University)
Marijuana use can trigger heart attack (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)
Marijuana Use May Pose Health Threat To Baby Boomers (American Heart Association Circulation Journal)
Possible Connection Between Marijuana Abuse And Stroke Or Heart Attacks (Molecular Psychiatry Journal)
Regular Cannabis May Increase Risk Of Stroke In Young Users (British Medical Journal)

Lung Disease:
Growing Evidence Of Marijuana Smoke's Potential Dangers (American Chemical Society)
Impact on lungs of 1 cannabis joint equal to up to 5 cigarettes (British Medical Journal)
Long-term Marijuana Smoking Leads To Respiratory Complaints (Archives of Internal Medicine Journal)
Marijuana associated with same respiratory symptoms as tobacco (Yale School of Medicine)
Marijuana Smoke Contains Higher Levels Of Certain Toxins Than Tobacco Smoke (American Chemical Society)
Marijuana Smokers Face Rapid Lung Destruction -- As Much As 20 Years Ahead Of Tobacco Smokers (Respirology Journal)
Marijuana Smoking Increases Risk Of COPD For Tobacco Smokers (Canadian Medical Association Journal)
Marijuana Worsens COPD Symptoms In Current Cigarette Smokers (American Thoracic Society)
Research Confirms Adverse Effects of Cannabis on Respiratory Health (University of Otago, New Zealand)
Smoking One Joint is Equivalent to 20 Cigarettes (Medical Research Institute of New Zealand)

Machinery Of The 'Marijuana Munchies' (Neuron Journal)

Pregnancy Complication:
Marijuana Use Causes Early Pregnancy Failure (Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Marijuana use could cause tubal pregnancies (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)

Sexual Dysfunction:
Abusing Marijuana May Overload System, Inhibit Fertility (American Society for Cell Biology)
Marijuana-Like Compounds May Alter Human Fertility (American Society of Cell Biology)
Researcher connects cannabis use and sexual dysfunction (Queen's University, Canada)
Sperm From Marijuana Smokers Move Too Fast Too Early, Impairing Fertility (American Society of Reproductive Medicine)

Viral Infection:
Marijuana Component Opens The Door For Virus That Causes Kaposi's Sarcoma (Cancer Research Journal)
Regular Marijuana Use Increases Risk Of Hepatitis C-related Liver Damage (AGA Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology Journal)

Myth - Alzheimer Treatment:
Marijuana ineffective as an Alzheimer’s treatment (University of British Columbia)

Myth - Multiple Sclerosis Treatment:
Marijuana Use May Hurt Intellectual Skills in MS Patients (American Academy of Neurology)
Smoking Marijuana Impairs Cognitive Function in MS Patients (American Academy of Neurology)

Myth - Nausea Relief:
Severe Vomiting Sickness With Chronic Cannabis Abuse (World Journal of Gastroenterology)

Myth - Pain Relief:
Active ingredients in marijuana found to spread and prolong pain (University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston)
Cannabis 'no better than codeine' for headaches (The Independent, UK)
Doubts on cannabis for pain relief (Flinders Medical Centre, Australia)
Drug trial casts doubt over cannabis-based painkiller for MS sufferers (Daily Mail, UK)
Endocannabinoids can promote pain (Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences at ETH Zurich)
Oral Cannabis Ineffective In Treating Acute Pain (Journal of Anesthesiology)
Side effects rule out cannabis for pain and nausea (New Scientist)
Too Much Marijuana Makes Pain Worse, Not Better (University of California, San Diego)

African-American Girls Who Use Marijuana Engage In Riskier Sex, Have Higher STD Rate (School of Public Health, Emory University)
Cannabis Almost Doubles Risk Of Fatal Crashes (British Medical Journal)
Children who smoke cannabis are twice as likely to offend (Queen's University Belfast)
Driving under influence of cannabis more common and riskier than drink driving (University of Otago, New Zealand)
Early Exposure To Drugs, Alcohol Creates Lifetime Of Health Risk (Psychological Science Journal)
Emotional Intelligence And The Use Of Tobacco And Cannabis (UAB Department of General, Development and Educational Psychology)
Father's incarceration associated with elevated risks of marijuana and other illegal drug use (Bowling Green State University)
Frequent Family Meals Might Reduce Teen Substance Use (Journal of Adolescent Health)
Glamorization Of Drugs In Rap Music Jumped Dramatically Over 2 Decades (Addiction Research & Theory Journal)
Malt Liquor Linked To Marijuana Use Among Young Adults (Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Journal)
One Of Every Three Popular Songs Contains References To Substance Use (American Public Health Association)
Pot and pop: New research finds stronger link between music and marijuana use among teens (University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences)
Pop Stars More Than Twice As Likely To Die An Early Death (British Medical Journal)
References To Explicit Substance Use Common In Popular Music (Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Journal)
Religiosity Curbs Teen Marijuana Use By Half (Journal of Drug Issues)
Researchers Find Factors That Encourage Cannabis Use Among University Students (Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research)
Rising Teen Marijuana Use Is Fueled By Change In Attitudes (American Journal of Public Health)
Teens who frequently go out with friends more likely to use marijuana (Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine)
United States Has Highest Level Of Illegal Cocaine And Cannabis Use (PLoS Medicine Journal)

Cannabis 'could kill 30,000 a year' (BBC, May 2, 2003)
Death by cannabis verdict is a first (The Times, UK, January 20, 2004)
Cannabis link in death crash (The New Zealand Herald, May 3, 2004)
Rail death teen 'took cannabis' (BBC, August 19, 2004)
Cannabis claim in Jodi death case (BBC, November 19, 2004)
Cannabis caused a 14-year-old to kill (Daily Mail, UK, February 14, 2005)
Death driver had smoked cannabis (The Whitehaven News, UK, May 19, 2005)
Patient died after cannabis trial (The Times, UK, December 12, 2005)
Cannabis medicine is implicated in death of pensioner (The Times, UK, December 17, 2005)
Soldier killed friend's dad while having 'cannabis-induced delusions' (Daily Mail, UK, August 29, 2006)
Cannabis downgrading blamed for psychotic killer gangs by vicar (Daily Mail, UK, October 4, 2006)
Death-crash teenagers had taken cannabis (The Argus, UK, January 31, 2007)
Boy on skunk cannabis butchered a grandmother (Daily Mail, UK, April 3, 2007)
Student's cannabis rampage emulates ultra-violent computer game (Daily Mail, UK, May 15, 2007)
Cannabis link to solicitor in death leap at Tate (The Daily Telegraph, UK, May 16, 2007)
Artist beaten to death by teens high on cannabis in savage attack (Daily Mail, UK, June 22, 2007)
How cannabis made me a monster (Daily Mail, UK, June 14, 2007)
Schizophrenic addicted to skunk cannabis killed best friend (Daily Mail, UK, August 2, 2007)
I warned them my cannabis-addicted son would kill (Daily Mail, UK, August 3, 2007)
Cannabis smoker blamed for seven-death crash (The Age, Australia, August 23, 2007)
Mother blames cannabis for suicide of promising violinist daughter (Daily Mail, UK, September 6, 2007)
Retired librarian bludgeoned to death by cannabis thug - for refusing to give him a cigarette (Daily Mail, UK, September 17, 2007)
Cannabis-smoking satanist admits knifing vicar to death in act of 'inhuman savagery' (Daily Mail, UK, October 17, 2007)
Deadly skunk 'accounts for 75 per cent of all cannabis seizures' (Daily Mail, UK, October 16, 2007)
Halifax man had smoked cannabis before death crash (Halifax Courier, UK, December 6, 2007)
Biker death cannabis row (The Star, UK, February 6, 2008)
Cannabis drove Brighton man to kill himself (The Argus, UK, February 22, 2008)
Cannabis-smoking mum stabbed herself to death (The Argus, UK, March 11, 2008)
How my perfect son became crazed after smoking cannabis (Daily Mail, UK, April 4, 2008)
Mother tells of horror of watching speedboat kill her two-year-old son on Paradise beach (Daily Mail, UK, April 16, 2008)
Shock video of couple forcing 18-month-old baby to smoke marijuana (Daily Mail, UK, April 18, 2008)
Teenager high on cannabis stabs girlfriend 32 times during bondage game after being wrongly told she had Aids (Daily Mail, UK, April 18, 2008)
Cannabis-smoking mother stabbed two young sons to death after begging social services to collect her children (Daily Mail, UK, April 28, 2008)
Addict stole tiny puppy then blew marijuana smoke in its face until it passed out (Daily Mail, UK, July 3, 2008)
Cannabis addict jailed for life after stabbing Good Samaritan to death as he tried to protect elderly neighbour (Daily Mail, UK, July 16, 2008)
Cannabis smoking led to brutal killing (The Daily Telegraph, UK, October 7, 2008)
Teacher's son 'stabbed his girlfriend to death after being driven mad by 10 years of cannabis abuse' (Daily Mail, UK, October 7, 2008)
Cannabis abuser 'snapped his 16-month-old daughter's back in two' (Daily Mail, UK, October 10, 2008)
Drunk motorist on cannabis killed holiday couple in 120mph crash (The Daily Telegraph, UK, October 23, 2008)
Student suicide over course worries after cannabis use (The Daily Telegraph, UK, October 30, 2008)
'Cannabis obsessed' thugs who left pickaxe attack victim for dead are jailed for four years (Daily Mail, UK, January 13, 2009)
Colorado Teen Allegedly Tries to Kill Mother After Marijuana Find (FOX News, March 16, 2009)
Cannabis addict gripped by paranoia stabbed a stranger to death in the street (Daily Mail, UK, March 20, 2009)
NHS blunders left cannabis-crazed schizophrenic free to stab policeman to death (Daily Mail, UK, March 24, 2009)
Depressed mum hanged herself while on cannabis (Eastbourne Today, UK, May 13, 2009)
Cannabis 'is not harmless' warns coroner after drug use triggers teenager's fatal fit (Daily Mail, UK, July 1, 2009)
Cannabis-smoking lorry driver who killed woman after ploughing into her on hard shoulder is jailed for just 14 months (Daily Mail, UK, September 9, 2009)
Man Chokes To Death On Marijuana After Arrest (WFOR-TV, December 12, 2009)
Death crash pilot 'had used cannabis' (Oldham Advertiser, March 2, 2010)
The Cannabis Countess: Why is eccentric who drilled a hole in head to get high supported by the Government's drugs czar? (Daily Mail, UK, April 10, 2010)
Baby hacked to death in axe-attack by laughing stranger, as mother begged for mercy (Daily Mail, UK, April 14, 2010)
Gymnast had cannabis in blood after death (ABC News, Australia, September 8, 2010)
Public schoolboy with cannabis habit who stabbed his best friend 13 times and left him for dead is locked up for nine years (Daily Mail, UK, September 28, 2010)
Schizophrenic man hooked on cannabis stabbed stranger 81 times... after NHS said he 'posed no danger' (Daily Mail, UK, October 5, 2010)

Note: This is not a resource on the legality of marijuana or a comparison to alcohol or tobacco.


Unknown said...

First of all, I just want to point out how pathetic you are for spnding the time to create this article; let's face it, this is poorly done. You four fucking computer nerds are going to try and convince me that marijuana is basically the anti-Christ by citing only TWO sources?! How pathetic is that!? That so called science website more than likely has some agenda and therefore REASON to post blatant lies like that. Perhaps they are being supported by certain pharmacutical companies, or even oil companies; who knows? Secondly... Fox News... Are you fucking kidding me?! Fox News!? Those guys were practically taking it in the ass from McCain with a smile on their faces! Of course they're going to do reports that give marijuana a bad name! But as for you people... You people make me sik to my stomach; a bunch of fucking half-wit computer nerds working for some fucked-off "science" journal that no one has ever fucking heard of! How fucking dare you! And then your other video about CO2 not being dangerous!?!?! FUck you guys! I'm going to smoke pot 'til I'm 90 fuckin years old and there's nothing you OR the government can do about it, you why? Because I am an American and I have the right to be free... So fuck you you fuckin nerds; you're just pissed off because none of the jocks invited you to their keggers in college and high school! What a bunch of fucking dorks you all are, I hope nothing but terrible things happen to you in your lives! Fuck you!

Andrew said...

Try over 55 Sources. No lies here just the scientific facts. We do not accept funding from any pharmacutical companies, though I don't know why they would care about stoners. There is nothing wrong with FOX News and their news reporting, those stories are accurate. CO2 is not dangerous and it is not pollution. You have every right to increase you risk of brain damage as it is clear yours is currently functioning very well. As for sports I played Basketball and ran Track in high School.

Rick said...

troy needs to calm down... seriously
His reply sound like that he wrote it for his grade 5 "be a douche" class. Even if that is not the case,I bet he is a 30-year old "man" that works for a nerd for below minimum wage because he didn't graduate from high school.

Well that's out of my system now,

But something that you need to think about is that some city (European. You know which city I'm talking about) legalized the marijuana after extensive research and accumulative medical informations. So far, I didn't hear anything that went wrong with that.
But then again, all the pot smokers I know has IQ of sub-110 and doesn't even know how to solve a simple trig problem... hmm...

Unknown said...

ok first of all I want to disassociate myself from troy.
second of all I couldn't disagree with you more on your marijuana article, much of the information you cite is only applicable in very limited circumstances, like the article about driving while high causing more accidents. while this is true, it is only true if people drive while high, this statistic could also be applied to alcohol as well, but it is still legal. also many of the articles discussing the negative health benefits of marijuana are only applicable to someone who smoked pot like cigarettes, while first of all damn near nobody smokes that much, the same negative health benefits are applicable to tobacco use, actually I take that back, tobacco is much worse because it is full of additional chemicals yet it is still legal too. at the heart of the issue is the fact that marijuana users should not be seeking to overturn status quot,while it is sad that they are in order for something to be banned there should be a burden of proof for banning something before we go and make it illegal. since I can best discuss this from an american perspective (I am american) it is a requirement of just american policy that a drug be proven to have a societal harm before it is banned. take for example alcohol, while its effects on your liver are sad indeed, societally it is fairly harmless pot is in many ways even more mild than alcohol. also banning is improbable and unworkable, despite weeds illegality it is still widely used. Also legalization would not only bring in many needed tax dollars it would also undercut crime. because pot is illegal criminals are involved, and while most users of pot don't go on to commit any crime, some of the kingpins who profit from pot also profit from cocaine methamphetamine, human trafficking, and illegal immigration. by legalizing pot there will be no reason for the user to continue to fund their other more ignoble causes as it will be able to be obtained much more cheaply through legitimate sources. this effect has been proven empirically by the prohibition. Lastly what an individual does to their own body really shouldn't be under the governments jurisdiction. even if pot was as harmful as you claim (it's not) it still isn't the government's job to stop people from harming themselves (like by smoking tobacco) If you truly believe that pot is as bad for you as you claim then that's fine, don't smoke it. but why should someone else giving themselves cancer have any effect on you? in the end marijuana usage is a personal choice best left in the hands of the individual.
oh and also all that evidence about pot being addictive, well its crap. experts only classify pot as "mentally addictive" which means you like it so you do it again. saying pot is addictive is like saying roller coasters are addictive, you get done and say "damn that was fun I want to do that again" I challenge you to prove physical addiction to marijuana.

Andrew said...

This article is not a discussion of the legality of marijuana. It is a resource of the negative health and sociological effects of it's use. Please stay on topic.

This is also not a discussion of tobacco or alcohol. Again please stay on topic.

Saying that it is true that accidents increase while driving high proves my point regarding this.

Saying pot is fairly harmless in society is disproven by the evidence presented here.

The fact that marijuana is addictive is supported by the scientific evidence presented here.

Unknown said...

By the way. You dickholes are probably the same FUckers who believe 9/11 was some sort of government conspiracy. You sicken me. just because you read some screwed up thing that presents some bullshit evidence doesn't mean crap. I can smoke all the fucking hell I want and there isn't shit you can do about it. Just know that your article did shit for me except wanting to go shove a blunt up your ass soaked in gas and light it. Congrats on being super lame and doing no good in the world. Hows your day job btw? Nice? do you feel satisfied with your life. would you say your happy? GO FUCK YOURSELF.

Andrew said...

I have made it clear what this resource is about and all offtopic comments will be removed. I am not going to repeat myself for those who fail to read, your comments will simply be removed.

I in no way believe 9/11 was a conspiracy and I am doing well in my job and in life. I am very happy and all without any drugs. Then again I am strong willed and not weak minded.

Bert said...

How do you know that these studies are true or not? You guys have obviously never smoked weed before because anybody who has knows by experience that none of it is true. Your opinions are based on unreliable "studies" and you believe every word of it just because it is against weed. And you try to debate something that you have no experience on?? It makes me gag.

Andrew said...

Bert you have 85 scientific studies showing the negative mental and health effects of smoking marijuana vs your "personal experience". I am well aware that those that smoke it do not think it has any effect on them. But I have extensive experience dealing with people who used it and the effects are real. All of the users made the same claims you did yet their behavior did not match their rhetoric. I recommend reading the studies and making up your own mind.

Unknown said...

What is your position on medicinal marijuana use in situations where alternatives are ineffective, unaffordable, and/or more dangerous?

Andrew said...

Medical Marijuana is a propaganda tool by people who want to get high. There is nothing stopping drug companies from taking any extract from Marijuana and making a drug out of it. The fact that no one has should tell you of the actual medical benefits of the plant, which are non-existent. Multiple studies have come out showing that Marijuana does not actually reduce pain but can actually cause more. I have no problem with the scientific use of any plant for REAL medical purposes.

OlliG said...

reading these comments made me laugh. I don't understand why you guys are getting so upset. This is clearly labeled as a resource for people that are trying to find information about the negative effects of pot, that is not to say that there might be positive ones. It just seems to me that some of you are so narrowly focused on trying to get pot legalized that you aren't even willing to consider anything that might harm your case. Seems pretty sad to me.


AM said...

I appreciate this websites information as I quit smoking pot over 3months ago. I had smoked for over 20 years and I got to the point that I felt as though my heart was going to pound out of my chest every time I smoked. The effects may not come at all but for some they do. And I know a lot of pot smokers that have the same a effects but they continue to smoke because they feel that the positives of their use out weigh the negative effects. So it comes down to choice. The defensiveness and aggressiveness of some of these comments makes me believe that it also has a violent effect for some........... ?????????????